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5G is the next generation of wireless technology – it will be used for faster internet, the IOT (Internet of Things), surveillance, smart cities and buildings, Smart Grid,Medical appliances, transport infrastructures, monitoring traffic and vehicles, smart street lights, waste management, connected and autonomous vehicles, drones, augmented and virtual reality applications, advanced manufacturing and for interconnecting new technologies and networks. 5G Networks most people are worried this new network generates radiofrequency radiation that can damage DNA and lead to cancer; cause oxidative damage that can cause premature aging; disrupt cell metabolism; and potentially lead to other diseases through the generation of stress proteins, The main problem with 5G is that it’s being rolled out without little or no testing on the damage it may do living organisms and their environments.
Acoustic resonance is a phenomenon in which an acoustic system amplifies sound waves whose frequency matches one of its own natural frequencies of vibration (its resonance frequencies).The term “acoustic resonance” is sometimes used to narrow mechanical resonance to the frequency range of human hearing, but since acoustics is defined in general terms concerning vibrational waves in matter, acoustic resonance can occur at frequencies outside the range of human hearing. An acoustically resonant object usually has more than one resonance frequency, especially at harmonics of the strongest resonance. It will easily vibrate at those frequencies, and vibrate less strongly at other frequencies. It will “pick out” its resonance frequency from a complex excitation, such as an impulse or a wideband noise excitation. In effect, it is filtering out all frequencies other than its resonance.
Binaural Beats, When you hear two tones, one in each ear, that are slightly different in frequency, your brain processes a beat at the difference of the frequencies. This is called a binaural beat. Say you’re listening to a sound in your left ear that’s at a frequency of 132 Hertz (Hz). And in your right ear, you’re listening to a sound that’s at a frequency of 121 Hz. Your brain, however, gradually falls into synchrony with the difference — or 11 Hz. Instead of hearing two different tones, you instead hear a tone at 11 Hz (in addition to the two tones given to each ear). Binaural beats are considered auditory illusions. For a binaural beat to work, the two tones have to have frequencies less than 1000 Hz, and the difference between the two tones can’t be more than 30 Hz. The tones also have to be listened to separately, one through each ear. Binaural beats have been explored in music and are sometimes used to help tune instruments, such as pianos and organs.
Schumann himself was interested in the biological effects of frequencies in general, and his student and later colleague Herbert König has continued this work. In a summary the latter quotes many surprising results of such effects. They span from an influence on yeast cells and bacteria as well as plants and animals to humans. Human weather sensitivity is, for example, strengthened with increased amplitudes of natural oscillations at 10 Hz. With artificial application of such waves human circadian periodicity is significantly accelerated, test subjects show extended response time, or they cause headache. In many of these experiments effects showed a strong dependence on frequency. The so-called alpha waves during brain activity lie in the same frequency range as the first two modes of the Schumann resonance. Medics speculate that this is possibly no coincidence, but human adaptation to the electromagnetic environment in the course of evolution. In this border area between physics, biology and medicine there are perhaps still interesting results forthcoming
The brain is a massive source of extremely low frequency (ELF) signals that get transmitted throughout the body through the nervous system, which is sensitive to magnetic fields. Brainwaves and natural biorhythms can be entrained by strong external ELF signals, such as stationary waves at Schumann resonance. Entrainment, synchronization, and amplification leads toward coherent large-scale activity, rather than typical flurries of transient brainwaves. Thus, resonant standing waves emerge from the brain, which under the right conditions facilitates internal and external bioinformation transfer, via ELF electromagnetic waves (Nikolaenko and Hayakwa, 2014). These SR waves, exhibit nonlocal character and nearly-instant communication.
The term brainwave entrainment refers to the use of rhythmic stimuli with the intention of producing a frequency-following response of brainwaves to match the frequency of the stimuli. The stimulus is usually either visual (fl ashing lights) or auditory (pulsating tones). By those in the industry, it is also commonly called “brain entrainment,” “audiovisual entrainment (AVE),” “audiovisual stimulation (AVS),” “auditory entrainment,” or “photic stimulation.”
Which frequency is best for brain?
Definitions. The EEG (electroencephalograph) measures brainwaves of different frequencies within the brain. …
Brain Wave Frequencies:
DELTA (0.1 to 3.5 Hz) The lowest frequencies are delta. …
THETA (4-8 Hz) The next brainwave is theta. …
ALPHA (8-12 Hz) …
BETA (above 12 Hz) …
GAMMA (above 30 Hz) …
Cavity Resonator is one in which waves exist in a hollow space inside the device. In electronics and radio, microwave cavities consisting of hollow metal boxes are used in microwave transmitters, receivers and test equipment to control frequency, in place of the tuned circuits which are used at lower frequencies.
DNA, short for deoxyribonucleic acid, is the molecule that contains the genetic code of organisms. … Part of an organism’s DNA is “non-coding DNA” sequences. They do not code for protein sequences. Some noncoding DNA is transcribed into non-coding RNA molecules, such as transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and regulatory RNAs.
In DNA Formation: Dr. L. Montagnier conducted an experiment in which he filled two test tubes with pure water and placed piece of heavily diluted bacterial DNA into one of the test tubes. After surrounding both test tubes with a weak electromagnetic field pulsing at 7.82Hz for 18 hours, DNA was detectable in the glass that originally had nothing in it but water. It would appear that the 7.83 Hz played a substantial role in extracting the
DNA information from the one test tube and communicating it into the other test tube.
The EEG (electroencephalograph) measures brainwaves of different frequencies within the brain. Rhythmicity in the EEG is a key variable in the coordination of cortical activity. Electrodes are placed on specific sites on the scalp to detect and record the electrical impulses within the brain. Frequency is the number of times a wave repeats itself within a second. It can be compared to the frequencies on a radio. Amplitude represents the power of electrical impulsesgenerated by the brain. Volume or intensity of brain wave activity is measured in Microvolts. Raw EEG frequency bands include Gamma (higher than 30Hz); Beta (14-30Hz); Alpha (7.5-13Hz); Theta (3.5-7.5Hz); and Delta (less than 4Hz). Their ranges overlap one another along the frequency spectrum by 0.5 Hz or more. These frequencies are linked to behaviors, subjective feeling states, physiological correlates, etc. Clinical improvement with EEG biofeedback is traceable to improved neuroregulation in the basic functions by appeal to their underlying rhythmic mechanisms. Schumann’s resonance forms a natural feedback loop with the human mind/body.
Electromagnetic Field Frequency Memory in Water.
There is sufficient evidence that water exposed to electromagnetic (EM) field undergoes structural changes and the water remembers the field memory for extended period of time as discovered by some eminent Scientists. Electromagnetic radiation can be trapped within water molecules in much the same way as electric fields are trapped and stored within the dielectric placed between the two metal plates of a capacitor and treated water with electromagnetic radiation exhibits some memory characteristics. Water consists 70 % of human body. Water reaches every tissue of human body within 30 minutes after drinking. It even flows through blood brain barrier and has almost no side effect. If water itself could work as a radical scavenger, it would be an ideal antioxidant. It was revealed that every matter has its accompanying wave.
The wave part of the matter contains Information (called information wave), and can be transferred to water physically by shaking or tapping, and thus serially diluted water have been used to stimulate natural healing power in traditional homeopathy. This way of transferring the wave part of the mater to water has been already demonstrated by Benveniste and researchers. A new electronic device was developed which could replace time consuming homeopathy to activate water. The device uses 7.8Hz frequency as a carrier which is the resonance frequency of the Earth. Using the device information wave of hormones and other cytokines could be transferred to water and even to other medium like ceramic balls. Information wave of the hormone or cytokine transferred to ceramic balls could be passed to water indirectly by contacting water. Such water containing information wave of the matter functioned like hormone for human
The brain is a very sensitive electromagnetic organ. The model and hypothesis proposes a direct mechanism for SR signals to interact with the brain, altering the brain waves and neurohormone responses. Altered reaction time is a prompt and acute indication of this interaction. It has been shown that exogenous ELF signals affect melatonin/serotonin,dopamine and opiate systems, Frey (1995). This effect is plausible through interference with endogenous ELF systems and the vital role of calcium ion signalling. Melatonin reduction is directly correlated with S-GMA levels that are highly correlated with a natural exogenous ELF field, the SR signal. Given the biological effects of reduced melatonin, this predicts that there could well be a wide range of melatonin related neurological effects correlated with solar cycles and GMA events. A large number of studies have been carried out and are summarised below People with Epilepsy are primary subjects for the detection of acute effects of GMA on human neurological functions because of the frequency-based dysfunction that they suffer from. Karlov, Selitskii and Sorokina (1996) compared the reactions of 18 healthy individuals and 20 epileptic patients to magnetic fields modulated in the EEG frequency range. They showed that alteration of the magnetic field elevated the functional activity of the brain synchronising structures and increased either the epileptic activity or activation of the epileptic focus. Sandyk and Anninos (1992a and b) report success in reducing epileptic seizures with picoTesla ULF magnetic fields with SR-like frequencies. Sandyk (1992) relates these results to the alteration of the EEG alpha rhythm (8-13 Hz), pineal melatonin and magnetic field altered circadian seizure incidences.
Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) designation for electromagnetic radiation (radio waves) with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz, and corresponding wavelengths of 100,000 to 10,000 kilometers, respectively. In atmospheric science, an alternative definition is usually given, from 3 Hz to 3 kHz. In the related magnetosphere science, the lower frequency electromagnetic oscillations (pulsations occurring below ~3 Hz) are considered to lie in the ULF range, which is thus also defined differently from the ITU radio bands. ELF radio waves are generated by lightning and natural disturbances in Earth’s magnetic field, so they are a subject of research by atmospheric scientists. Because of the difficulty of building antennas that can radiate such long waves, ELF frequencies have been used in only a very few man-made communication systems. ELF waves can penetrate seawater, which makes them useful in communication with submarines, and a few nations have built military ELF transmitters to transmit signals to their submerged submarines, consisting of huge grounded wire antennas (ground dipoles) 15 – 60 km long driven by transmitters producing megawatts of power. The US, Russia, India, and China are the only nations known to have constructed these ELF communication facilities. The U.S. facilities were used between 1985 and 2004 but are now decommissioned.
FitzGerald is best known for his conjecture in his short letter to the editor of Science titled “The Ether and the Earth’s Atmosphere” (1889) that if all moving objects were foreshortened in the direction of their motion, it would account for the curious null-results of the Michelson–Morley experiment. FitzGerald based this idea in part on the way electromagnetic forces were known to be affected by motion. In particular, FitzGerald used some equations that had been derived a short time before by his friend the electrical engineer Oliver Heaviside. The Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz hit on a very similar idea in 1892 and developed it more fully into Lorentz transformations, in connection with his theory of electrons.
The Lorentz–FitzGerald contraction (or FitzGerald–Lorentz contraction) hypothesis became an essential part of the Special Theory of Relativity, as Albert Einstein published it in 1905. He demonstrated the kinematic nature of this effect, by deriving it from the principle of relativity and the constancy of the speed of light.
Geomagnetic Field, also known as Earth’s magnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth’s interior out into space, where it interacts with the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun. The magnetic field is generated by electric currents due to the motion of convection currents of a mixture of molten iron and nickel in the Earth’s outer core: these convection currents are caused by heat escaping from the core, a natural process called a geodynamo. The magnitude of the Earth’s magnetic field at its surface ranges from 25 to 65 microteslas (0.25 to 0.65 gauss). As an approximation, it is represented by a field of a magnetic dipole currently tilted at an angle of about 11 degrees with respect to Earth’s rotational axis, as if there were an enormous bar magnet placed at that angle through the center of the Earth. The North geomagnetic pole, which was in 2015 located on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, in the northern hemisphere, is actually the south pole of the Earth’s magnetic field, and conversely.
While the North and South magnetic poles are usually located near the geographic poles, they slowly and continuously move over geological time scales, but sufficiently slowly for ordinary compasses to remain useful for navigation. However, at irregular intervals averaging several hundred thousand years, the Earth’s field reverses and the North and South Magnetic Poles respectively, abruptly switch places. These reversals of the geomagnetic poles leave a record in rocks that are of value to paleomagnetists in calculating geomagnetic fields in the past. Such information in turn is helpful in studying the motions of continents and ocean floors in the process of plate tectonics.
Geomagnetic Storms are the magnetic changes produced by ionospheric storms, and are thus associated with conditions capable of changing the Schumann signals.
A geomagnetic storm (commonly referred to as a solar storm) is a temporary disturbance of the Earth’s magnetosphere caused by a solar wind shock wave and/or cloud of magnetic field that interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field.
The disturbance that drives the magnetic storm may be a solar coronal mass ejection (CME) or a co-rotating interaction region (CIR), a high-speed stream of solar wind originating from a coronal hole. The frequency of geomagnetic storms increases and decreases with the sunspot cycle. During solar maximum, geomagnetic storms occur more often, with the majority driven by CMEs. During solar minimum, storms are mainly driven by CIRs (though CIR storms are more frequent at solar maximum than at minimum).
The increase in the solar wind pressure initially compresses the magnetosphere. The solar wind’s magnetic field interacts with the Earth’s magnetic field and transfers an increased energy into the magnetosphere. Both interactions cause an increase in plasma movement through the magnetosphere (driven by increased electric fields inside the magnetosphere) and an increase in electric current in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. During the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, electric current in the magnetosphere creates a magnetic force that pushes out the boundary between the magnetosphere and the solar wind.
Several space weather phenomena tend to be associated with or are caused by a geomagnetic storm. These include solar energetic particle (SEP) events, geomagnetically induced currents (GIC), ionospheric disturbances that cause radio and radar scintillation, disruption of navigation by magnetic compass and auroral displays at much lower latitudes than normal.
Geospace can be defined as the region of the outer space near Earth. This includes the upper atmosphere, ionosphere as well as the magnetosphere. It can be called the domain of the Sun-Earth interactions.Geospace, also known as solar-terrestrial environment, can be defined as that region of space which goes from the solar photosphere to the mesosphere of the Earth. As the name suggests, geospace is a combination of two terms – ‘geo’ (which when used as a prefix, denotes earth, ground or land) and ‘space’ (which refers to the outer space in this case, i.e. the void that exists between various celestial bodies, including Earth). Low-density particles, that are electrically-charged, magnetic fields, and radiation environment from the Sun to the Earth’s atmosphere together constitute the geospace. Storm-like disturbances that are powered by the solar wind is formed from the plasma. This may drive electric currents into the Earth’s atmosphere. When this happens, the radiation belts and the ionosphere of the geospace are disturbed. Geospace is believed to be the last of the four physical geosphere, with the first three being solid earth, ocean, and atmosphere. Geospace can be understood as having two boundaries, with magnetopause being the outer boundary and ionosphere as the inner. Geospace field is interconnected with heliophysics, which is the study of the impact of the Sun on the solar system because the behaviour and properties of the space near earth are affected by the Sun’s behaviour and the weather of the space.
In 1893, George Francis FitzGerald noted that the upper layers of the atmosphere were good conductors. Assuming the height of these layers to be about 100 km above ground, he estimated that oscillations (in this case the lowest mode of the Schumann resonances) would have a period of 0.1 second. FitzGerald’s findings were not widely known as they were only presented at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, followed by a brief mention in a column in Nature. Hence the first suggestion that an ionosphere existed, capable of trapping electromagnetic waves, is attributed to Heaviside and Kennelly (1902). It took another twenty three years before Edward Appleton and Barnett in 1925 were able to prove experimentally the existence of the ionosphere.
Although some of the most important mathematical tools for dealing with spherical waveguides were developed by G. N. Watson in 1918,it was Winfried Otto Schumann who first studied the theoretical aspects of the global resonances of the earth–ionosphere waveguide system, known today as the Schumann resonances. In 1952–1954 Schumann, along with H. L. König; attempted to measure the resonant frequencies. However, it was not until measurements made by Balser and Wagner in 1960–1963 that adequate analysis techniques were available to extract the resonance information from the background noise.
The human brain is a biological organ. On one hand it is soft, flexible and adaptive, but on the other hand is relatively stable and coherent with well developed intelligence. In order to retain intelligent thinking in a soft and adaptive organ there needs to be a constant, globally available, synchronisation system that continuously stabilises the brain. Rapid intelligence and reactions requires and electromagnetic signalling system, supported by a biochemical system. The Schumann Resonance signal provides a brain frequency range matching electromagnetic signal, providing the synchronisation needed for intelligence.
The ionosphere expands and shrinks based on solar conditions and basically acts like a big mirror for electromagnetic waves. If below the ionosphere lightning storms or other occurrences result in big electromagnetic discharges, the electromagnetic waves travel up to the ionosphere, get reflected and dispersed and travel back down to earth again. Due to the sheer volume of the ionosphere and the dispersal of these waves, they end up coming down all over the earth. If you think of the fact that lightning strikes occur on average 100 times a second and around 20 million bolts of lightning are generated in the atmosphere every year
Kindling is a term applied, in particular, to the entrainment of neurons in the brain. They are ignited in coherent patterns producing larger waves across a greater surface of the brain. In deep meditation, when waves of Alpha and Theta rhythms cascade across the entire brain, it is possible for people and the planet to come into resonance. There is a transfer of energy and information, some people beliveve this is the planet connection with us through frequencies.
The troposphere starts at the Earth’s surface and extends 8 to 14.5 kilometers high (5 to 9 miles). This part of the atmosphere is the most dense. Almost all weather is in this region.
The stratosphere starts just above the troposphere and extends to 50 kilometers (31 miles) high. The ozone layer, which absorbs and scatters the solar ultraviolet radiation, is in this layer.
The mesosphere starts just above the stratosphere and extends to 85 kilometers (53 miles) high. Meteors burn up in this layer.
The thermosphere starts just above the mesosphere and extends to 600 kilometers (372 miles) high. Aurora and satellites occur in this layer.
The ionosphere is an abundant layer of electrons and ionized atoms and molecules that stretches from about 48 kilometers (30 miles) above the surface to the edge of space at about 965 km (600 mi), overlapping into the mesosphere and thermosphere. This dynamic region grows and shrinks based on solar conditions and divides further into the sub-regions: D, E and F; based on what wavelength of solar radiation is absorbed. The ionosphere is a critical link in the chain of Sun-Earth interactions. This region is what makes radio communications possible.
This is the upper limit of our atmosphere. It extends from the top of the thermosphere up to 10,000 km (6,200 miles).
Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge during which two electrically charged regions in the atmosphere or ground temporarily equalize themselves, causing the instantaneous release of as much as one gigajoule of energy. This discharge may produce a wide range of electromagnetic radiation, from very hot plasma created by the rapid movement of electrons to brilliant flashes of visible light in the form of black-body radiation. Lightning causes thunder, a sound from the shock wave which develops as gases in the vicinity of the discharge experience a sudden increase in pressure. Lightning occurs commonly during thunderstorms and other types of energetic weather systems.
The three main kinds of lightning are distinguished by where they occur: either inside a single thundercloud, between two different clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. Many other observational variants are recognized, including “heat lightning”, which can be seen from a great distance but not heard; dry lightning, which can cause forest fires; and ball lightning, which is rarely observed scientifically.
Humans have deified lightning for millennia, and lightning-inspired expressions like “bolt from the blue”, “to be struck by lightning” (as to having an epiphany or enlightenment), “lightning never strikes twice (in the same place)” and “blitzkrieg” are in common usage. In some languages, the notion of “love at first sight” literally translates as “lightning strike”.
Mechanical resonance is the tendency of a mechanical system to respond at greater amplitude when the frequency of its oscillations matches the system’s natural frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency or resonant frequency) than it does at other frequencies. It may cause violent swaying motions and even catastrophic failure in improperly constructed structures including bridges, buildings and airplanes. This is a phenomenon known as resonance disaster.
A molecular vibration is a periodic motion of the atoms of a molecule relative to each other, such that the center of mass of the molecule remains unchanged. The typical frequencies of molecular motions, known as the vibrational frequencies, range from less than 1013 Hz to approximately 1014 Hz, corresponding to wave numbers of approximately 300 to 3000 cm−1.
In general, a non-linear molecule with N atoms has 3N – 6 normal modes of vibration, but a linear molecule has 3N – 5 such modes, because rotation about its molecular axis cannot be observed. A diatomic molecule has one normal mode of vibration. The normal modes of vibration of polyatomic molecules are independent of each other but each normal mode will involve simultaneous vibrations of different parts of the molecule such as different chemical bonds.
A molecular vibration is imbued when the molecule absorbs a quantum of energy, E, corresponding to the vibration’s frequency, ν, according to the relation E = hν (where h is Planck’s constant). A fundamental vibration is evoked when one such quantum of energy is absorbed by the molecule in its ground state. When two quanta are absorbed the first overtone is excited, and so on to higher overtones.
To a first approximation, the motion in a normal vibration can be described as a kind of simple harmonic motion. In this approximation, the vibrational energy is a quadratic function (parabola) with respect to the atomic displacements and the first overtone has twice the frequency of the fundamental. In reality, vibrations are anharmonic and the first overtone has a frequency that is slightly lower than twice that of the fundamental. Excitation of the higher overtones involves progressively less and less additional energy and eventually leads to dissociation of the molecule, because the potential energy of the molecule is more like a Morse potential or more accurately, a Morse/Long-range potential.
The vibrational states of a molecule can be probed in a variety of ways. The most direct way is through infrared spectroscopy, as vibrational transitions typically require an amount of energy that corresponds to the infrared region of the spectrum. Raman spectroscopy, which typically uses visible light, can also be used to measure vibration frequencies directly. The two techniques are complementary and comparison between the two can provide useful structural information such as in the case of the rule of mutual exclusion for centrosymmetric molecules.
Vibrational excitation can occur in conjunction with electronic excitation in the ultraviolet-visible region. The combined excitation is known as a vibronic transition, giving vibrational fine structure to electronic transitions, particularly for molecules in the gas state.
Simultaneous excitation of a vibration and rotations gives rise to vibration-rotation spectra.
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) was interested in the earth’s “heartbeat” from early on. Professor Persinger and other reputable professors such as Dr. Ludwig declared and considered this frequency as “biological norm”. Astronauts who left the ionosphere and re-entered earth suffered from strong physiological conflicts. Persinger recognised the problem and fixed it. He designed small 7.83Hz(Schumann Resonance) generators, for astronauts to carry with them and protect them. Concerning the earth’s magnetic field’s impact on the brain, the scientific studies of Caltech show that the human brain exhibits magnetic crystals. These are magnetite Fe3O4 Absorption follows the law of the “classical physics process of resonance matching of frequency”. Electromagnetic signals within the brain or of the brainwaves are supported via biochemical systems. The Schumann Resonance affects the melatonin/serotonin balance, resulting in several illnesses such as cancer, heart problems etc. In addition to Schumann excitation, solar activity and geomagnetic activity (GMA) also interact with the brain.Scientific connection between frequencies and health Meanwhile, experiments and scientific investigations prove the coherence between this frequency and humans. Science is ready to have single organs resonate with this frequency.
Neurobiological studies show that the resonance frequency of the hippocampus is 7.83Hz. NASA was interested in the earth’s “heartbeat” from early on. Professor Persinger and other reputable professors such as Dr. Ludwig declared and considered this frequency as “biological norm”. Astronauts who left the ionosphere and re-entered earth suffered from strong physiological conflicts. Persinger recognised the problem and fixed it. He designed small 7.83Hz(Schumann Resonance) generators, for astronauts to carry with them and protect them. Concerning the earth’s magnetic field’s impact on the brain, the scientific studies of Caltech show that the human brain exhibits magnetic crystals. These are magnetite Fe3O4 Absorption follows the law of the “classical physics process of resonance matching of frequency”. Scientific connections between frequencies and health, experiments and scientific investigations prove the coherence between this frequency and humans. Science has already proven individual organs resonate with this frequency. Neurobiological studies show that the resonance frequency of the hippocampus is 7.83Hz.
Neurones – the scientific name for nerve cells. The brain is made up of millions of neurones. Neurones control all of the body’s functions by communicating using electrical signals. The neuron is the basic working unit of the brain, a specialised cell designed to transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells. Neurons are cells within the nervous system that transmit information to other nerve cells, muscle, or gland cells. Most neurons have a cell body, an axon, and dendrites. Neurones (Brain cells) work by sending nerve impulses from one cell to another to transfer messages around the brain and the body. These messages, called action potentials, happen due to changes in the electrical charge of the cells. So when the brain is ‘working’ cells communicate using electrical signals, and when they do this they ‘give off’ electricity called brain waves.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. The term vibration is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation. Familiar examples of oscillation include a swinging pendulum and alternating current.
Oscillations occur not only in mechanical systems but also in dynamic systems in virtually every area of science: for example the beating of the human heart (for circulation), business cycles in economics, predator–prey population cycles in ecology, geothermal geysers in geology, vibration of strings in guitar and other string instruments, periodic firing of nerve cells in the brain, and the periodic swelling of Cepheid variable stars in astronomy.
The term resonance (from Latin resonantia, ‘echo’, from resonare, ‘resound’) originates from the field of acoustics, particularly observed in musical instruments, e.g., when strings started to vibrate and to produce sound without direct excitation by the player. For example, electrical resonance occurs in a circuit with capacitors and inductors because the collapsing magnetic field of the inductor generates an electric current in its windings that charges the capacitor, and then the discharging capacitor provides an electric current that builds the magnetic field in the inductor. Once the circuit is charged, the oscillation is self-sustaining, and there is no external periodic driving action. This is analogous to a mechanical pendulum, where mechanical energy is converted back and forth between kinetic and potential, and both systems are forms of simple harmonic oscillators.
Let’s demonstrate the resonance effect an apparatus. A horizontal rod (broom handle) is supported by two strings either end to a support beam. Three pairs of pendulums 1-2, 2-5 and 3-4 are suspended on the rod( broom handle). Each pair is the same length but is different for different pairs. If one of these pendulums say c, is displaced in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the paper, then its resultant oscillatory motion causes in rod AB a very slight disturbing motion, whose period is the same as that of c’. Due to this slight motion of the rod, each of the remaining pendulums (aa’, bb’, and cc’) undergo a slight periodic motion. This causes the pendulum c’, whose length and , hence, the period is exactly the same as that of c, to oscillate back and forth with steadily increasing amplitude. However, the amplitudes of the other pendulums remain small throughout the subsequent motion of c and c’, because their natural periods are not the same as that of the disturbing force due to rod AB.
The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth’s electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, generated and excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth’s surface and the ionosphere. In 1952, German physicist and Professor W. O. Schumann hypothesized there were measurable electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere that existed in the cavity (or space) between the surface of the earth and the ionosphere. In 1954, Schumann and H.L. König confirmed Schumann’s hypothesis by detecting resonances at a main frequency of 7.83 Hz; thus the “Schumann resonance” was established by measuring global electromagnetic resonances generated and excited by lightning discharges in the ionosphere.
Simple harmonic motion can serve as a mathematical model for a variety of motions, such as the oscillation of a spring. In addition, other phenomena can be approximated by simple harmonic motion, including the motion of a simple pendulum as well as molecular vibration. Simple harmonic motion is typified by the motion of a mass on a spring when it is subject to the linear elastic restoring force given by Hooke’s law. The motion is sinusoidal in time and demonstrates a single resonant frequency. For simple harmonic motion to be an accurate model for a pendulum, the net force on the object at the end of the pendulum must be proportional to the displacement. This is a good approximation when the angle of the swing is small. Simple harmonic motion provides a basis for the characterisation of more complicated motions through the techniques of Fourier analysis.
The Sun’s upper atmosphere, the corona, is very hot and produces a constant stream of plasma and UV and X-rays that flow out from the Sun and affect, or ionise, the Earth’s ionosphere. Only half the Earth’s ionosphere is being ionised by the Sun at any time . During the night, without interference from the Sun, cosmic rays ionise the ionosphere, though not nearly as strongly as the Sun. These high energy rays originate from source
Standing waves were first noticed by Michael Faraday in 1831. Faraday observed standing waves on the surface of a liquid in a vibrating container. Franz Melde coined the term “standing wave” (German: stehende Welle or Stehwelle) around 1860 and demonstrated the phenomenon in his classic experiment with vibrating strings.
This phenomenon can occur because the medium is moving in the opposite direction to the wave, or it can arise in a stationary medium as a result of interference between two waves traveling in opposite directions. The most common cause of standing waves is the phenomenon of resonance, in which standing waves occur inside a resonator due to interference between waves reflected back and forth at the resonator’s resonant frequency.
For waves of equal amplitude traveling in opposing directions, there is on average no net propagation of energy.
The thermosphere is the layer in the Earth’s atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere. Within this layer of the atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation causes photoionsation/photodissociation of molecules, creating ions in the ionosphere. Taking its name from the Greek ?e?µ?? (pronounced thermos) meaning heat, the thermosphere begins at about 80 km (50 mi) above sea level. At these high altitudes, the residual atmospheric gases sort into strata according to molecular mass. Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation. Temperatures are highly dependent on solar activity, and can rise to 1,700 °C (3,100 °F) or more. Radiation causes the atmosphere particles in this layer to become electrically charged (see ionosphere), enabling radio waves to be refracted and thus be received beyond the horizon. In the exosphere, beginning at about 600 km (375 mi) above sea level, the atmosphere turns into space, although by the judicial criteria set for the definition of the Kármán line, the thermosphere itself is part of space.
There are three main types of neurons, including: sensory, relay and motor. Each type of neuron has a different function, depending on its location in the body and its role within the nervous system. All three types of neurons consist of similar parts; however their structure, location and functions are different see below.
Sensory neurons are found in receptors such as the eyes, ears, tongue and skin, and carry nerve impulses to the spinal cord and brain. When these nerve impulses reach the brain, they are translated into ‘sensations’, such as vision, hearing, taste and touch. However, not all sensory neurons reach the brain, as some neurons stop at the spinal cord, allowing for quick reflex actions.
Relay neurons are found between sensory input and motor output/response. Relay neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord and allow sensory and motor neurons to communicate.
Motor neurons are found in the central nervous system (CNS) and control muscle movements. When motor neurons are stimulated they release neurotransmitters that bind to the receptors on muscles to trigger a response, which lead to movement.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system. The wave function is a complex-valued probability amplitude, and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it. The most common symbols for a wave function are the Greek letters Ψ (lower-case and capital psi, respectively).
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting the transmission of energy to one direction. Without the physical constraint of a waveguide, wave amplitudes decrease according to the inverse square law as they expand into three dimensional space.
There are different types of waveguides for different types of waves. The original and most common meaning is a hollow conductive metal pipe used to carry high frequency radio waves, particularly microwaves. Dielectric waveguides are used at higher radio frequencies, and transparent dielectric waveguides and optical fibers serve as waveguides for light. In acoustics, air ducts and horns are used as waveguides for sound in musical instruments and loudspeakers, and specially-shaped metal rods conduct ultrasonic waves in ultrasonic machining.
The geometry of a waveguide reflects its function; in addition to more common types that channel the wave in one dimension, there are two dimensional slab waveguides which confine waves to two dimensions. The frequency of the transmitted wave also dictates the size of a waveguide: each waveguide has a cutoff wavelength determined by its size and will not conduct waves of greater wavelength; an optical fiber that guides light will not transmit microwaves which have a much larger wavelength. Some naturally occurring structures can also act as waveguides. The SOFAR channel layer in the ocean can guide the sound of whale song across enormous distances.
Winfried Otto Schumann was born in Tübingen, Germany, the son of a physical chemist. His early years were spent in Kassel and in Berndorf, a town near Vienna. He majored in electrical engineering at the Technical College in Karlsruhe. In 1912 he gained a doctorate with high-voltage technology as his thesis.
Prior to the First World War, he managed the high voltage laboratory at Brown, Boveri & Cie.
During 1920, he was made a professor at the Technical University in Stuttgart, where he had previously been employed as a research assistant. He subsequently took a position as professor of physics at the University of Jena. In 1924, he was made professor and director of the Electrophysical Laboratory at the Technical University of Munich.
Brought to America under Operation Paperclip. During 1947–1948 he worked at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio, USA and then returned to his post in Munich.
The Munich laboratory subsequently became the Electrophysical Institute, where Schumann continued working until retiring from active research in 1961 at the age of 73, though he continued teaching for a further two years.
Schumann died on September 22, 1974 in Munich.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many different local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Euclidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used to write Greek today. These twenty-four letters (each in uppercase and lowercase forms) are: Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, and Ω ω. The Greek alphabet is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between uppercase and lowercase in parallel with Latin during the modern era. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed significantly between the fifth century BC and today. Modern and Ancient Greek also use different diacritics. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields.